June 03, 2021

I've ditched Disqus as the comment system on this blog. I am now using Utterances. Utterances is an open source comment system that is backed by GitHub issues. Basically, every post has a corresponding issue opened on GitHub, and the comments on the post are the comments on the issue. Utterances automatically places the comments at the bottom of the post. For example, here is the issue corresponding to this post.

I didn't like Disqus mostly because it serves ads and tracking. Even though I had opted out from as much of it as I could in the Disqus settings, it still loads tracking scripts on every page. I run uBlock Origin always, and it's a bit hypocritical if my own side has things that are blocked by it. In some cases I can't avoid it (as far as I know), like when I embed a YouTube video, but it definitely shouldn't be on every post.

Utterances is a very nice alternative. I has lots of advantages:

  • Comments are not self-hosted. GitHub hosts them. Since you need a GitHub account to comment, this should make comment spam a non-issue.
  • Comments support full Markdown.
  • Users can edit their comments.
  • I can edit and fully moderate all comments.
  • Users log in with a federated system that proves their identity.
  • Email subscription to posts.
  • No ads or tracking.
  • It's completely open source and free to use.

If you use Nikola like I do, it natively supports Utterances (a feature which I added). Otherwise, go to the Utterances and paste the script tag generated at the bottom into your blog template. Then install the Utterances app in your repo, and you are done.

Exporting Disqus Comments

Some of my old posts had Disqus comments, which I wanted to preserve somehow. Here is guide on how I did that, since it wasn't as straightforward as I would have hoped.

The first step is to export your Disqus comments. It's very difficult to actually find the place in the Disqus site where you do this, but I finally found the URL. The export takes some time to complete (for me it took about half an hour). When it finished, Disqus will email you an XML file with all your comments. Note that the file contains all comments for all sites you have ever set up with Disqus. For me, it also included all the comments on my old Wordpress blog, as well as posts for draft blog posts that I never ended up publishing. It also contained all comments that were marked as spam, so you will need to remember to filter those.

I decided that since I only have a handful of posts with Disqus comments, I would just write a script to process them all and manually print them out, which I will then manually enter in to the Utterances comment system for those posts.

I wrote a script to process the comments, which you can find here. Disqus does provides an XML schema for the XML. I used a library called xsData, which lets you take an XML scheme and generate Python dataclasses corresponding to it, which make manipulating the parsed XML much easier than the standard library xml library. The script outputs text like

========== Comments from https://asmeurer.github.io/blog/posts/what-happens-when-you-mess-with-hashing-in-python/ ==========

These are the original comments on this post that were made when this blog used the [Disqus blog system](https://www.asmeurer.com/blog/posts/switching-to-utterances-comments/).

>**Comment from bjd2385 on 2016-08-28 12:33:12+00:00:**

><p>Very interesting post. I was just looking into hash functions (I've never formally learned what the topic entails), and since I'm most familiar with Python this post explained quite a bit, especially your early mathematical points.</p>

>**Comment from Mark Lawrence on 2016-10-03 20:26:54+00:00:**

><p>At what point does Python 3 force the override of __hash__ if you've defined __eq__?  E.g when would your</p><p>AlwaysEqual class fail?</p>


>>**Comment from asmeurer on 2016-10-03 20:38:13+00:00:**

>><p>That's a good catch. I originally wrote this post in Python 2. The example does indeed fail in Python 3. More specifically, if you override __eq__, Python 3 automatically sets __hash__ to None. I'll update the post to make this more clear.</p>

>**Comment from Erick Mendonça on 2017-07-30 03:23:55+00:00:**

><p>Great article! We must really pay attention to these details when implementing custom hashes.</p>

>**Comment from Ignacio on 2017-10-07 22:31:56+00:00:**

><p>Thanks a lot for this post! Clarified a lot of concepts.</p>

which I then manually copied to each post's Utterances page on GitHub.

Feel free to adapt my script if you find yourself in a similar situation.

Utterances Comments

Feel free to use the comments on this page to play around with the commenting system.

Note that to comment, there are two options. You can log in on this page, which will let you type your comment in the box below. This requires giving the Utterances bot access to your GitHub account. Alternately, if you don't want to give a bot access, you can just go directly to the GitHub issue page and comment there. I am currently in the process of figuring out how to add some boilerplate to each page that makes this clear (see this Utterances issue). If anyone has any suggestions on how to do this, let me know. For now, I am just going to manually add a statement about this as the first comment on each post.

October 30, 2020

This summer I had plenty of time during COVID-19 lockdown and I was looking at SymPy Gamma.

Sympy Gamma

SymPy Gamma is a web application that executes mathematical expressions via natural language input from the user, after parsing them as SymPy expressions it displays the result with additional related computations. It is inspired from the idea of WolframAlpha which is based on the commercial Computer Algebra System named “Mathematica”.

I have always been impressed by it ever since I first found about it. While playing with it during this summer, I realised that it runs on Google App Engine’s Python 2.7 runtime. It is powered by SymPy, an open source computer algebra system.

The Problem

Despite being widely used around the world (about ~14K users everyday, as seen from Google Analytics), there hasn’t been a lot of development in the past 5 years. Due to this the current infrastructure was stuck on Google App Engine’s Python 2 runtime which obviously does not support Python 3.

This also prevented it to use the latest version of SymPy. The SymPy version (~0.7.6) it was using was last updated 6 years ago. This made SymPy Gamma in urgent need for upgradation. At the time of writing this blog, SymPy Gamma is running on Google App Engine’s latest runtime and latest version of SymPy.

Solution and Process

It was a fun project and was interesting to see how Google cloud offering has evolved from Google App Engine to Google Cloud Platform. The old App engine did seem like a minimal cloud offering launched by Google in an attempt to ship something early and quickly. It reminded me of my first cloud project in college (dturmscrap), which I deployed to Google App Engine, back in 2015.

I used Github projects to track the whole project, all the work done for this can be seen here.

$ Git Log

Here is a summary of what was achieved:

  • PR 135: Migrating Django to a slightly higher version, this was the first blood just to make sure everything was working. I upgraded it to the latest version of Django that was supported on Python 2 runtime. This also exposed the broken CI, which was fixed in this.

  • PR 137: This upgraded the CI infrastructure to use Google Cloud SDK for deployment, the previous method was discontinued.

  • PR 140: Upgrading the Database backend to use Cloud NDB instead of the legacy App Engine NDB.

  • PR 148: Since we change the database backend, we needed something for testing locally, this was done by using Google Cloud Datastore emulator locally.

  • PR 149: The installation and setup of the project was quite a challenge. Installing and keeping track of the versions of a number of application was non-trivial. This Pull request dockerized the project and made the development setup trivial and it all boiled down to just one command.

  • PR 152: The login feature was previously implemented using the user API of the Google App Engine’s Python2 runtime, which was not available in Python 3 runtime. We removed the login feature as it was not used by many and was too much effort to setup OAuth for login.

  • PR 153: Now was the time to slowly move towards Python 3 by making the code compatible with both 2 and 3. It was achieved via python-modernize.

  • PR 154: We then made the migration to Python 3.7 runtime and removed submodules and introduced a requirements.txt for installing dependencies.

  • PR 159: The above change made it possible to upgrade SymPy to latest version, which was 1.6 at that time.

  • PR 165: The last piece of the puzzle was upgrading Django itself, so we upgraded it to the latest version, which was Django 3.0.8.

Next Steps

  • At the time of writing this Google has released the Python 3.8 runtime, it would nice to further upgrade it now.
  • The test coverage can be increased.
  • The code can be refactored to be more readable and approachable for new contributors.

Thanks to Google for properly documenting the process, which made the transition much easier.

Thanks to NumFocus, without them this project would not have been possible. Also thanks to Ondrej Certik and Aaron Meurer for their advice and support throughout the project.

August 31, 2020

This report summarizes the work done in my GSoC 2020 project, Implementation of Vector Integration with SymPy. Blog posts with step by step development of the project are available at friyaz.github.io.

About Me

I am Faisal Riyaz and I have completed my third year of B.Tech in Computer Engineering student from Aligarh Muslim University.


The goal of the project is to add functions and class structure to support the integration of scalar and vector fields over curves, surfaces, and volumes. My mentors were Francesco Bonazzi (Primary) and Divyanshu Thakur.

Work Completed

Here is a list of PRs which were opened during the span of GSoC:

  • (Merged) #19472: Adds ParametricRegion class to represent parametrically defined regions.

  • (Merged) #19539: Adds ParametricIntegral class to represent integral of scalar or vector field over a parametrically defined region.

  • (Merged) #19580: Modified API of ParametricRegion.

  • (Merged) #19650: Added support to integrate over objects of geometry module.

  • (Merged) #19681: Added ImplicitRegion class to represent implicitly defined regions.

  • (Megred) #19807: Implemented the algorithm for rational parametrization of conics.

  • (Merged) #20000: Added API of newly added classes to sympy’s documentation.

  • (Open) #19883: Allow vector_integrate to handle ImplicitRegion objects.

  • (Open) #20021: Add usage examples.

We had an important discussion regarding our initial approach and possible problems on issue #19320

Defining Regions with their parametric equations

The ParametricRegion class is used to represent a parametric region in space.

>>> from sympy.vector import CoordSys3D, ParametricRegion, vector_integrate
>>> from sympy.abc import r, theta, phi, t, x, y, z
>>> from sympy import pi, sin, cos, Eq

>>> C = CoordSys3D('C')

>>> circle = ParametricRegion((4*cos(theta), 4*sin(theta)), (theta, 0, 2*pi))
>>> disc = ParametricRegion((r*cos(theta), r*sin(theta)), (r, 0, 4), (theta, 0, 2*pi))
>>> box = ParametricRegion((x, y, z), (x, 0, 1), (y, -1, 1), (z, 0, 2))
>>> cone = ParametricRegion((r*cos(theta), r*sin(theta), r), (theta, 0, 2*pi), (r, 0, 3))

>>> vector_integrate(1, circle)
>>> vector_integrate(C.x*C.x - 8*C.y*C.x, disc)
>>> vector_integrate(C.i + C.j, box)
(Integral(1, (x, 0, 1), (y, -1, 1), (z, 0, 2)))*C.i + (Integral(1, (x, 0, 1), (y, -1, 1), (z, 0, 2)))*C.j
>>> _.doit()
4*C.i + 4*C.j
>>> vector_integrate(C.x*C.i - C.z*C.j, cone)

Integration over objects of geometry module

Many regions like circle are commonly encountered in problems of vector calculus. the geometry module of SymPy already had classes for some of these regions. The functionparametric_region_list was added to determine the parametric representation of such classes. vector_integrate can directly integrate objects of Point, Curve, Ellipse, Segment and Polygon class of geometry module.

>>> from sympy.geometry import Point, Segment, Polygon, Segment
>>> s = Segment(Point(4, -1, 9), Point(1, 5, 7))
>>> triangle = Polygon((0, 0), (1, 0), (1, 1))
>>> circle2 = Circle(Point(-2, 3), 6)
>>> vector_integrate(-6, s)
>>> vector_integrate(C.x*C.y, circle2)
>>> vector_integrate(C.y*C.z*C.i + C.x*C.x*C.k, triangle)

Implictly defined Regions

In many cases, it is difficult to determine the parametric representation of a region. Instead, the region is defined using its implicit equation. To represent implicitly defined regions, we implemented the ImplicitRegion class.

But to integrate over a region, we need to determine its parametric representation. the rationl_parametrization method was added to ImplicitRegion.

>>> from sympy.vector import ImplicitRegion
>>> circle3 = ImplicitRegion((x, y), (x-4)**2 + (y+3)**2 - 16)
>>> parabola = ImplicitRegion((x, y), (y - 1)**2 - 4*(x + 6))
>>> ellipse = ImplicitRegion((x, y), (x**2/4 + y**2/16 - 1))
>>> rect_hyperbola = ImplicitRegion((x, y), x*y - 1)
>>> sphere = ImplicitRegion((x, y, z), Eq(x**2 + y**2 + z**2, 2*x))

>>> circle3.rational_parametrization()
(8*t/(t**2 + 1) + 4, 8*t**2/(t**2 + 1) - 7)
>>> parabola.rational_parametrization()
(-6 + 4/t**2, 1 + 4/t)
>>> rect_hyperbola.rational_parametrization(t)
(-1 + (t + 1)/t, t)
>>> ellipse.rational_parametrization()
(t/(2*(t**2/16 + 1/4)), t**2/(2*(t**2/16 + 1/4)) - 4)
>>> sphere.rational_parametrization()
(2/(s**2 + t**2 + 1), 2*s/(s**2 + t**2 + 1), 2*t/(s**2 + t**2 + 1))

After PR #19883 gets merged, vector_integrate can directly work upon ImplicitRegion objects.

Future Work

  • In vector calculus, many regions cannot be defined using a single implicit equation. Instead, inequality or a combination of the implicit equation and conditional equations is required. For Example, a disc can only be represented using an inequality ImplicitRegion(x**2 + y**2 < 9) and a semicircle can be represented as ImplicitRegion(x**2 + y**2 -4) & (y < 0)). Support for such implicit regions needs to be added.

  • The parametrization obtained using the rational_parametrization method in most cases is a large expression. SymPy’s Integral is unable to work over such expressions. It takes too long and often does not returns a result. We need to either simplify the parametric equations obtained or fix Integral to handle them.

  • Adding the support to plot objects of ParamRegion and ImplicitRegion


This summer has been a great learning experience. Writing a functionality, testing, debugging it has given me good experience in test-driven development. I think I realized many of the goals that I described in my proposal, though there were some major differences in the plan and actual implementation. Personally, I hoped I could have done better. I could not work much on the project during the last phase due to the start of the academic year.

I would like to thank Francesco for his valuable suggestions and being readily available for discussions. He was always very friendly and helpful. I would love to work more with him. S.Y Lee also provided useful suggestions.

Special thanks to Johann Mitteramskogler, Professor Sonia Perez Diaz, and Professor Sonia L.Rueda. They personally helped me in finding the algorithm for determining the rational parametrization of conics.

SymPy is an amazing project with a great community. I would mostly stick around after the GSoC period as well and continue contributing to SymPy, hopefully, exploring the other modules as well.

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August 29, 2020

This report summarises the work I have done during GSoC 2020 for SymPy. The links to the PRs are in chronological order. For following the progress made during GSoC, see my blog for the weekly posts.

About Me

I am Sachin Agarwal, a third-year undergraduate student majoring in Computer Science and Engineering from the Indian Institute of Information Technology, Guwahati.

Project Synopsis

My project involved fixing and amending functions related to series expansions and limit evaluation. For further information, my proposal for the project can be referred.

Pull Requests

This section describes the actual work done during the coding period in terms of merged PRs.

Phase 1

  • #19292 : This PR added a condition to limitinf method of gruntz.py resolving incorrect limit evaluations.

  • #19297 : This PR replaced xreplace() with subs() in rewrite method of gruntz.py resolving incorrect limit evaluations.

  • #19369 : This PR fixed _eval_nseries method of mul.py.

  • #19432 : This PR added a functionality to the doit method of limits.py which uses is_meromorphic for limit evaluations.

  • #19461 : This PR corrected the _eval_as_leading_term method of tan and sec functions.

  • #19508 : This PR fixed _eval_nseries method of power.py.

  • #19515 : This PR added _eval_rewrite_as_factorial and _eval_rewrite_as_gamma methods to class subfactorial.

Phase 2

  • #19555 : This PR added cdir parameter to handle series expansions on branch cuts.

  • #19646 : This PR rectified the mrv method of gruntz.py and cancel method of polytools.py resolving RecursionError and Timeout in limit evaluations.

  • #19680 : This PR added is_Pow heuristic to limits.py to improve the limit evaluations of Pow objects.

  • #19697 : This PR rectified _eval_rewrite_as_tractable method of class erf.

  • #19716 : This PR added _singularities to LambertW function.

  • #18696 : This PR fixed errors in assumptions when rewriting RisingFactorial / FallingFactorial as gamma or factorial.

Phase 3

  • #19741 : This PR reduced symbolic multiples of pi in trigonometric functions.

  • #19916 : This PR added _eval_nseries method to sin and cos.

  • #19963 : This PR added _eval_is_meromorphic method to the class BesselBase.

  • #18656 : This PR added Raabe's Test to the concrete module.

  • #19990 : This PR added _eval_is_meromorphic and _eval_aseries methods to class lowergamma, _eval_is_meromorphic and _eval_rewrite_as_tractable methods to class uppergamma and rectified the eval method of class besselk.

  • #20002 : This PR fixed _eval_nseries method of log.

Miscellaneous Work

This section contains some of my PRs related to miscellaneous issues.

  • #19447 : This PR added some required testcases to test_limits.py.

  • #19537 : This PR fixed a minor performance issue.

  • #19604 : This PR fixed AttributeError in limit evaluation.

Reviewed Work

This section contains some of the PRs which were reviewed by me.

Issues Opened

This section contains some of the issues which were opened by me.

  • #19670 : Poly(E**100000000) is slow to create.
  • #19752 : gammasimp can be improved for integer variables.


This section describes the bugs fixed and the new features added during GSoC.

Fixed Limit Evaluations

>>> from sympy import limit, limit_seq

>>> n = Symbol('n', positive=True, integer=True)
>>> limit(factorial(n + 1)**(1/(n + 1)) - factorial(n)**(1/n), n, oo)
exp(-1)  # Previously produced 0

>>> n = Symbol('n', positive=True, integer=True)
>>> limit(factorial(n)/sqrt(n)*(exp(1)/n)**n, n, oo)
sqrt(2)*sqrt(pi)  # Previously produced 0 

>>> n = Symbol('n', positive=True, integer=True)
>>> limit(n/(factorial(n)**(1/n)), n, oo)
exp(1)  # Previously produced oo 

>>> limit(log(exp(3*x) + x)/log(exp(x) + x**100), x, oo)
3  # Previously produced 9

>>> limit((2*exp(3*x)/(exp(2*x) + 1))**(1/x), x, oo)
exp(1)  # Previously produced exp(7/3)

>>> limit(sin(x)**15, x, 0, '-')
0  # Previously it hanged

>>> limit(1/x, x, 0, dir="+-")
zoo  # Previously raised ValueError

>>> limit(gamma(x)/(gamma(x - 1)*gamma(x + 2)), x, 0)
-1  # Previously it was returned unevaluated

>>> e = (x/2) * (-2*x**3 - 2*(x**3 - 1) * x**2 * digamma(x**3 + 1) + 2*(x**3 - 1) * x**2 * digamma(x**3 + x + 1) + x + 3)
>>> limit(e, x, oo)
1/3  # Previously produced 5/6

>>> a, b, c, x = symbols('a b c x', positive=True)
>>> limit((a + 1)*x - sqrt((a + 1)**2*x**2 + b*x + c), x, oo)
-b/(2*a + 2)  # Previously produced nan

>>> limit_seq(subfactorial(n)/factorial(n), n)
1/e  # Previously produced 0

>>> limit(x**(2**x*3**(-x)), x, oo)
1  # Previously raised AttributeError

>>> limit(n**(Rational(1, 1e9) - 1), n, oo)
0  # Previously it hanged

>>> limit((1/(log(x)**log(x)))**(1/x), x, oo)
1  # Previously raised RecursionError

>>> e = (2**x*(2 + 2**(-x)*(-2*2**x + x + 2))/(x + 1))**(x + 1)
>>> limit(e, x, oo)
exp(1)  # Previously raised RecursionError

>>> e = (log(x, 2)**7 + 10*x*factorial(x) + 5**x) / (factorial(x + 1) + 3*factorial(x) + 10**x)
>>> limit(e, x, oo)
10  # Previously raised RecursionError

>>> limit((x**2000 - (x + 1)**2000) / x**1999, x, oo)
-2000  # Previously it hanged 

>>> limit(((x**(x + 1) + (x + 1)**x) / x**(x + 1))**x, x, oo)
exp(exp(1))  # Previously raised RecursionError

>>> limit(Abs(log(x)/x**3), x, oo)
0  # Previously it was returned unevaluted

>>> limit(x*(Abs(log(x)/x**3)/Abs(log(x + 1)/(x + 1)**3) - 1), x, oo)
3  # Previously raised RecursionError 

>>> limit((1 - S(1)/2*x)**(3*x), x, oo)
zoo  # Previously produced 0

>>> d, t = symbols('d t', positive=True)
>>> limit(erf(1 - t/d), t, oo)
-1  # Previously produced 1

>>> s, x = symbols('s x', real=True)
>>> limit(erf(s*x)/erf(s), s, 0)
x  # Previously produced 1

>>> limit(erfc(log(1/x)), x, oo)
2  # Previously produced 0

>>> limit(erf(sqrt(x)-x), x, oo)
-1  # Previously produced 1

>>> a, b = symbols('a b', positive=True)
>>> limit(LambertW(a), a, b) 
LambertW(b)  # Previously produced b

>>> limit(uppergamma(n, 1) / gamma(n), n, oo)
1  # Previously produced 0

>>> limit(besselk(0, x), x, oo)
0  # Previously produced besselk(0, oo)

Rewrote Mul._eval_nseries()

>>> e = (exp(x) - 1)/x
>>> e.nseries(x, 0, 3)
1 + x/2 + x**2/6 + O(x**3)  # Previously produced 1 + x/2 + O(x**2, x)

>>> e = (2/x + 3/x**2)/(1/x + 1/x**2)
>>> e.nseries(x, n=3)
3 - x + x**2 + O(x**3)  # Previously produced 3 + O(x)

Rewrote Pow._eval_nseries()

>>> e = (x**2 + x + 1) / (x**3 + x**2)
>>> series(e, x, oo)
x**(-5) - 1/x**4 + x**(-3) + 1/x + O(x**(-6), (x, oo))  
# Previously produced x**(-5) + x**(-3) + 1/x + O(x**(-6), (x, oo))

>>> e = (1 - 1/(x/2 - 1/(2*x))**4)**(S(1)/8)
>>> e.series(x, 0, n=17)
1 - 2*x**4 - 8*x**6 - 34*x**8 - 152*x**10 - 714*x**12 - 3472*x**14 - 17318*x**16 + O(x**17)  
# Previously produced 1 - 2*x**4 - 8*x**6 - 34*x**8 - 24*x**10 + 118*x**12 - 672*x**14 - 686*x**16 + O(x**17) 

Added Series Expansions and Limit evaluations on Branch-Cuts

>>> asin(I*x + I*x**3 + 2)._eval_nseries(x, 3, None, 1)
-asin(2) + pi - sqrt(3)*x/3 + sqrt(3)*I*x**2/9 + O(x**3)

>>> limit(log(I*x - 1), x, 0, '-')

Rectified ff._eval_rewrite_as_gamma() and rf._eval_rewrite_as_gamma()

>>> n = symbols('n', integer=True)
>>> combsimp(RisingFactorial(-10, n))
3628800*(-1)**n/factorial(10 - n)  # Previously produced 0

>>> ff(5, y).rewrite(gamma)
120/Gamma(6 - y)  # Previously produced 0

Added Raabe’s Test

>>> Sum(factorial(n)/factorial(n + 2), (n, 1, oo)).is_convergent()
True  # Previously raised NotImplementedError

>>> Sum((-n + (n**3 + 1)**(S(1)/3))/log(n), (n, 1, oo)).is_convergent()
True  # Previously raised NotImplementedError

Rewrote log._eval_nseries()

>>> f = log(x/(1 - x))
>>> f.series(x, 0.491, n=1).removeO()
-0.0360038887560022  # Previously raised ValueError

Future Work

  • Refactoring high level functions like series, nseries, lseries and aseries.
  • Add _eval_is_meromorphic method or _singularities to as many special functions as possible.
  • Work can be done to resolve the issues opened by me (listed above).


This summer has been a great learning experience and has helped me get a good exposure of test-driven development. I plan to continue contributing to SymPy and will also try to help the new contributors. I am grateful to my mentors, Kalevi Suominen and Sartaj Singh for reviewing my work, giving me valuable suggestions, and being readily available for discussions.

August 28, 2020

Key highlights of this week’s work are:

  • Fixed _eval_nseries() of log

    • This was a long pending issue. It was necessary to refactor the _eval_nseries method of log to fix some minor issues.

This marks the end of Phase-3 of the program. Finally, this brings us to the end of Google Summer of Code and I am really thankful to the SymPy Community and my mentor Kalevi Suominen for always helping and supporting me.

August 25, 2020

This is the final blog post highlighting the work done in the final week of Google Summer of Code program 2020.

Merged PRs for this week:

  • PR-19896: This PR added some other useful methods in the TransferFunction class. It was a part of the “other”...

August 24, 2020

GSoC 2020 Report Smit Lunagariya: Improving and Extending stats module

August 21, 2020

Key highlights of this week’s work are:

  • Implemented Raabe’s Test

    • This was a long pending issue. Raabe's Test helps to determine the convergence of a series. It has been added to the concrete module to handle those cases when the ratio test becomes inconclusive.

  • Fixed limit evaluations related to lowergamma, uppergamma and besselk function

    • We added _eval_is_meromorphic method to class lowergamma and uppergamma so that some of the limits involving lowergamma and uppergamma functions get evaluated using the meromorphic check already present in the limit codebase. Now, to make lowergamma and uppergamma functions tractable for limit evaluations, _eval_aseries method was added to lowergamma and _eval_rewrite_as_tractable to uppergamma.

      Finally, we also rectified the eval method of class besselk, so that besselk(nu, oo) automatically evaluates to 0.

August 18, 2020

Week 11 was spent mostly on applying suggestions from code review in the Transfer function matrix PR (19761). Prior to week 11, I was mostly involved in implementing a bunch of functionality but couldn’t add a good set of unit tests for that. So, I added tests for construction...

August 16, 2020

This is the final blog of the official program highlighting the final week. Some of the key discussions were:

August 14, 2020

Key highlights of this week’s work are:

  • Added _eval_is_meromorphic() to bessel function

    • We added the _eval_is_meromorphic method to the class BesselBase so that some of the limits involving bessel functions get evaluated using the meromorphic check already present in the limit codebase.

August 11, 2020

This blog post describes my progress in Weeks 9 and 10 of Google Summer of Code 2020.

I ended up week 8 by making changes in the Parallel class to make support for MIMO transfer function interconnection.

Week 9

I decided to do the similar thing for...

August 09, 2020

This blog describes the 11th week of the program. Some of the key highlights of this week are:

August 07, 2020

Key highlights of this week’s work are:

  • Fixed periodicity of trigonometric function

    • This was a long pending issue. The _peeloff_pi method of sin had to be rectified to reduce the symbolic multiples of pi in trigonometric functions. As a result of this fix, now sin(2*n*pi + 4) automatically evaluates to sin(4), when n is an integer.

  • Fixed limit evaluations related to trigonometric functions

    • In this PR, we added _eval_nseries method to both sin and cos to make the limit evaluations more robust when it comes to trigonometric functions. We also added a piece of code to cos.eval method so that the limit of cos(m*x), where m is non-zero, and x tends to oo evaluates to AccumBounds(-1, 1).

August 02, 2020

This blogs describes the 10th week of the program. Some of the highlights of this week are:

July 26, 2020

This blogs describes the week 9, the beginning week of the final phase. This week, I continued to work on the extension of Compound Distributions as well as completing the Matrix Distributions. Some of the highlights of this week are:

July 21, 2020

This blog post describes my progress in week 8, the last week of Phase 2. Since we already have a SISO transfer function object available for block diagram algebra, so now, I thought of adding a MIMO transfer function object in this control systems engineering package. The way it works...

July 19, 2020

This blog provides the brief description of last week of the second Phase i.e. week 8. Some of the key highlights of this week are:

July 14, 2020

Hi everyone :) Long time no see.

First of all, GOOD NEWS: My PR on adding a SISO transfer function object is finally merged. Yay!! A robust transfer function object is now available for Single Input Single Output (SISO) block diagram algebra.. Here is the documentation.

July 13, 2020

This week, I spent most of my time reading about algorithms to parametrize algebraic curves and surfaces.

Parametrization of algebraic curves and surfaces

In many cases, it is easiar to define a region using an implicit equation over its parametric form. For example, a sphere can be defined with the implict eqution x2 + y2 + z2 = 4. Its parametric equation although easy to determine are tedious to write.

To integrate over implicitly defined regions, it is necessary to determine its parametric representation. I found the report on conversion methods between parametric and implicit curves from Christopher M. Hoffmann very useful. It lists several algorithms for curves and surfaces of different nature.

Every plane parametric curve can be expressed as an implicit curve. Some, but not all implicit curves can be expressed as parametric curves. Similarly, we can state of algebraic surfaces. Every plane parametric surface can be expressed as an implicit surface. Some, but not all implicit surfaces can be expressed as parametric surfaces.

Conic sections

One of the algorithm to parametrize conics is given below:

  1. Fix a point p on the conic. Consider the pencil of lines through p. Formulate the line equations.
  2. Substitute for y in the conic equation, solve for x(t).
  3. Use the fine equations to determine y(t).

The difficult part is to find a point on the conic. For the first implementation, I just iterated over a few points and selected the point which satisfied the equation. I need to implement an algorithm that can find a point on the curve.

The parametric equations determined by the algoithm are large and complex expressions. The vector_integrate function in most cases is taking too much time to calculate the integral. I tried fixing this using simplification functions in SymPy like trigsimp and expand_trig. The problem still persist.

>>> ellipse = ImplicitRegion(x**2/4 + y**2/16 - 1, x, y)
>>> parametric_region_list(ellipse)
[ParametricRegion((8*tan(theta)/(tan(theta)**2 + 4), -4 + 8*tan(theta)**2/(tan(theta)**2 + 4)), (theta, 0, pi))]
>>> vector_integrate(2, ellipse)
### It gets stuck

The algorithm does not work for curves of higher algebraic degree like cubics.


A monoid is an algebraic curve of degree n that has a point of multiplicity n -1. All conics and singular cubics are monoids. Parametrizing a monoid is easy if the special point is known.

To parametrize a monoid, we need to determine a singular point of n - 1 multiplicity. The singular points are those points on the curve where both partial derivatives vanish. A singular point (xo, yo) of a Curve C is said to be of multiplicity n if all the partial derivatives off to order n - 1 vanish there. This paper describes an algorithm to calculate such a point but the algorithm is not trivial.

Next week’s goal

My goal is to complete the work on parametrizing conics. If I can find a simple algorithm to determine the singular point of the required multiplicity, I will start working on it.

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My goal for this week was to add support of integration over objects of geometry module.

Integrating over objects of geometry module

In my GSoC proposal, I mentioned implementing classes to represent commonly used regions. It will allow a user to easily define regions without bothering about its parametric representation. SymPy’s geometry module has classes to represent commonly used geometric entities like line, circle, and parabola. Francesco told me it would be better to add support to use these classes instead. The integral takes place over the boundary of the geometric entity, not over the area or volume enclosed.

My first approach was to add a function parametric_region to the classes of geometry module. Francesco suggested not to modify the geometry module as this would make it dependent on vector module. We decided to implement a function parametric_region to return a ParametricRegion of objects of geometry module.

I learned about the singledispatch decorater of python. It is used to create overloaded functions.
Polygons cannot be represented as a single ParametricRegion object. Each side of a polygon has its separate parametric representation. To resolve this, we decided to return a list of ParametricRegion objects.

My next step was to modify vector_integrate to support objects of geometry module. This was easy and involved calling the parametric_region_list function and integrating each ParametricRegion object.

The PR for the work has been merged. Note that we still do not have any way to create regions like disc and cone without their parametric representation. To support such regions, I think we need to add new classes to the geometry module.

Next week’s goal

I plan to work on implementing a class to represent implicitly defined regions.

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The first phase of GSoC is over. We can now integrate the scalar or vector field over a parametrically defined region.

The PR for ParametricIntegral class has been merged. In my last post, I mentioned about a weird error. It turns out that I was importing pi as a symbol instead of as a number. Due to this, the expressions were returned unevaluated causing tests to fail.

The route ahead

I had a detailed discussion with Francesco about the route ahead. My plan has drifted from my proposal because we have decided not to implement new classes for special regions like circles and spheres. The geometry module already has classes to represent some of these regions. We have decided to use these classes.

Francesco reminded me that we have to complete the documentation of these changes. I was planning to complete the documentation in the last phase. But I will try completing it soon as I may forget some details.

We also discussed adding support to perform integral transformation using Stoke’s and Green’s theorem. In many cases, such transformation can be useful but adding them may be outside the scope of this project.

I have convinced Francesco on adding classes to represent implicitly defined regions. It might be the most difficult part of the project but hopefully, it will be useful to SymPy users.

Next week’s goal

My next week’s goal is to make a PR for adding suppor to integrate over objects of the geometry module.

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July 12, 2020

Key highlights of this week’s work are:

  • Fixed incorrect limit evaluation related to LambertW function

    • This was a minor bug fix. We added the _singularities feature to the LambertW function so that its limit gets evaluated using the meromorphic check already present in the limit codebase.

  • Fixed errors in assumptions when rewriting RisingFactorial / FallingFactorial as gamma or factorial

    • This was a long pending issue. The rewrite to gamma or factorial methods of RisingFactorial and FallingFactorial did not handle all the possible cases, which caused errors in some evaluations. Thus, we decided to come up with a proper rewrite using Piecewise which accordingly returned the correct rewrite depending on the assumptions on the variables. Handling such rewrites using Piecewise is never easy, and thus there were a lot of failing testcases. After spending a lot of time debugging and fixing each failing testcase, we were finally able to merge this.

This marks the end of Phase-2 of the program. I learnt a lot during these two months and gained many important things from my mentors.

This blog describes the 7th week of the program and the 3rd week of Phase 2. Some of the key highlights on the discussions and the implementations during this week are:

July 05, 2020

Key highlights of this week’s work are:

  • Improved the limit evaluations of Power objects

    • This PR improves the limit evaluations of Power objects. We first check if the limit expression is a Power object and then accordingly evaluate the limit depending on different cases. First of all, we express b**e in the form of exp(e*log(b)). After this, we check if e*log(b) is meromorphic and accordingly evaluate the final result. This check helps us to handle the trivial cases in the beginning itself.

      Now, if e*log(b) is not meromorphic, then we separately evaluate the limit of the base and the exponent. This helps us to determine the indeterminant form of the limit expression if present. As we know, there are 3 indeterminate forms corresponding to power objects: 0**0, oo**0, and 1**oo, which need to be handled carefully. If there is no indeterminate form present, then no further evaluations are required. Otherwise, we handle all the three cases separately and correctly evaluate the final result.

      We also added some code to improve the evaluation of limits having Abs() expressions. For every Abs() term present in the limit expression, we replace it simply by its argument or the negative of its argument, depending on whether the value of the limit of the argument is greater than zero or less than zero for the given limit variable.

      Finally, we were able to merge this after resolving some failing testcases.

  • Fixed limit evaluations involving error functions

    • The incorrect limit evaluations of error functions were mainly because the tractable rewrite was wrong and did not handle all the possible cases. For a proper rewrite, it was required that the limit variable be passed to the corresponding rewrite method. This is because, to define a correct rewrite we had to evaluate the limit of the argument of the error function, for the passed limit variable. Thus, we added a default argument limitvar to all the tractable rewrite methods and resolved this issue. While debugging, we also noticed that the _eval_as_leading_term method of error function was wrong, hence it was also fixed.

      Finally, we were able to merge this after resolving some failing testcases.

This blog describes the 6th week of the official program and the 2nd week of Phase 2. By the end of this week, Compound Distributions framework is ready as targeted and I would now focus on the Joint Distributions in the upcoming weeks of this Phase.

June 30, 2020

This blog post describes my progress in Week 5 of Google Summer of Code 2020!

I ended up Week 4 by adding unit tests and a rough draft for Series and Parallel classes. Now in this week, to complete the implementation, we decided to add another...

June 28, 2020

Key highlights of this week’s work are:

  • Fixed RecursionError and Timeout in limit evaluations

    • The Recursion Errors in limit evaluations were mainly due to the fact that the indeterminant form of 1**oo was not handled accurately in the mrv() function of the Gruntz algorithm. So, some minor changes were required to fix those.

      The major issue was to handle those cases which were timing out. On deep digging, we identified that the cancel() function of polytools.py was the reason. Thus, we decided to completely transform the cancel() function to speed up its algorithm. Now after this major modification, many testcases were failing as the cancel() function plays an important role in simplifying evaluations and is thus used at many places across the codebase. Therefore, a lot of time was spent in debugging and rectifying these testcases.

      Finally we were able to merge this, enhancing the limit evaluation capabilities of SymPy.

This blogs describes the week 5, the beginning week of the Phase 2. Phase 2 will be mostly focused on Compound Distributions which were stalled from 2018, and additions to Joint Distributions.

June 23, 2020

With this, the fourth week and phase 1 of GSoC 2020 is over. Here I will give you a brief summary of my progress this week.

The initial days were spent mostly on modifying unit tests for Series and Parallel classes which I added in the...

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